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"Copland, Aaron, 1900-1990"
"Snell, Howard"
"Aaron Copland (/ˌærən ˈkoʊplənd/; November 14, 1900 – December 2, 1990) was an American composer, composition teacher, writer, and later in his career a conductor of his own and other American music. Instrumental in forging a distinctly American style of composition, in his later years he was often referred to as \"the Dean of American Composers\" and is best known to the public for the works he wrote in the 1930s and 1940s in a deliberately accessible style often referred to as \"populist\" and which the composer labeled his \"vernacular\" style. Works in this vein include the ballets Appalachian Spring, Billy the Kid and Rodeo, his Fanfare for the Common Man and Third Symphony. The open, slowly changing harmonies of many of his works are archetypical of what many people consider to be the sound of American music, evoking the vast American landscape and pioneer spirit. In addition to his ballets and orchestral works, he produced music in many other genres including chamber music, vocal works, opera and film scores. After some initial studies with composer Rubin Goldmark, Copland traveled to Paris, where he studied at first with Isidor Philipp and Paul Vidal, then with noted pedagogue Nadia Boulanger. He studied three years with Boulanger, whose eclectic approach to music inspired his own broad taste in that area. Determined upon his return to the U.S. to make his way as a full-time composer, Copland gave lecture-recitals, wrote works on commission and did some teaching and writing. He found composing orchestral music in the modernist style he had adapted abroad a financially contradictory approach, particularly in light of the Great Depression. He shifted in the mid-1930s to a more accessible musical style which mirrored the German idea of Gebrauchsmusik (\"music for use\"), music that could serve utilitarian and artistic purposes. During the Depression years, he traveled extensively to Europe, Africa, and Mexico, formed an important friendship with Mexican composer Carlos Chávez and began composing his signature works. During the late 1940s, Copland felt a need to compose works of greater emotional substance than his utilitarian scores of the late 1930s and early 1940s. He was aware that Stravinsky, as well as many fellow composers, had begun to study Arnold Schoenberg's use of twelve-tone (serial) techniques. In his personal style, Copland began to make use of twelve-tone rows in several compositions. He incorporated serial techniques in some of his later works[clarification needed], including his Piano Quartet (1951), Piano Fantasy (1957), Connotations for orchestra (1961) and Inscape for orchestra (1967). From the 1960s onward, Copland's activities turned more from composing to conducting. He became a frequent guest conductor of orchestras in the U.S. and the UK and made a series of recordings of his music, primarily for Columbia Records."
"Aaron Copland [ˈærən ˈkoʊplənd] (* 14. November 1900 in Brooklyn, New York; † 2. Dezember 1990 in North Tarrytown) war ein US-amerikanischer Komponist. Copland wurde als Sohn litauischer Einwanderer geboren. Er gilt als einer der wichtigsten Vertreter der amerikanischen Moderne, vor allem der Bühnenmusik galt seine Vorliebe. Nach expressionistisch-experimentalen Frühwerken (über sein Orgelkonzert wurde einmal gesagt: „Wer solch eine Musik schreibt, wird wohl später einen Mord begehen“) wandte er sich einem klar verständlichen, rhythmisch geprägten tonalen Stil zu, der Volkslieder, Märsche und Tänze einschloss. Er verschloss sich nie der zeitgenössischen Musik, etwa in Connotations für Orchester, und ließ auch Harmonien und Rhythmik des Jazz in seine Werke einfließen. Der Komponist und Dirigent Leonard Bernstein setzte sich sehr für seine Musik ein. Allgemein bekannt ist sein Werk Fanfare for the Common Man (1942 für Blechbläserensemble), das 1977 von der britischen Rockband Emerson, Lake and Palmer auf dem Album Works Volume I interpretiert wurde. Für sein Stück Appalachian Spring erhielt Copland 1945 den Pulitzer-Preis. Er war Namensgeber für das Softwareprojekt Copland der Firma Apple."
"Aaron Copland, né le à Brooklyn (New York) et mort le à Tarrytown (New York), est un compositeur américain."
"Creò un proprio stile compositivo che risentiva di varie influenze: la musica classica, la musica contemporanea, il jazz, e un'importante componente folklorica puramente americana."